This disease is a result of valve deficiency. People have 4 valves, aortic, pulmonary, mitral (bicuspid) and tricuspid. The patient can develop stenosis (narrowing) of the valve or improper closure of the valve. Both issues will need to be monitored throughout time.
- Symptoms: Shortness of breath, arrhythmia’s (palpitations), chest pain, weakness, dizziness and swelling to the legs/feet.
- TAVR: This is a minimally invasive procedure done to repair the aortic valve that does not close properly or is too narrow without removing the old/damaged valve. A small catheter is inserted into the patient via the leg or a small incision in the chest to gain access to the aortic valve. Once the catheter is placed near the valve, a replacement valve is placed onto the original valve to improve proper closure.
- PFO/ASD Closure: The heart has four chambers, two upper and two lower. PFO occurs when the body does not close the opening from the two upper chambers after birth. ASD is very similar to PFO in that the heart does not have a proper closure between the two upper chambers. There is a less invasive catheter treatment recommended for closure of these defects. The catheter goes through a vein to the heart and when it reaches the area, a small plug-like device is released and seals the area.
- Mitral Valve Clip: The mitral valve is the valve that regulates blood flow to the left upper and lower chambers of the heart. When there is improper closure of the valve, blood cannot move throughout the heart as it is meant to and a mitral clip is needed to facilitate that closure. The clip is a small metal device that is inserted via a catheter and permanently attached to the valve for proper closure.
- Watchman: This device is used to close off a left atrial appendage (LAA). LAA is a sac in muscle wall of the left upper chamber of the heart. The sac can lead to clots in that area and this device closes the sac so blood does not flow into that area and therefore, decreases the risk of blood clots. Like most devices, the Watchman is placed via a catheter and is applied to the opening of the appendage.